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Parsha Mishpatim | Book: Exodus

Chapter 21

1These are the rules that you shall set before them:

2When you acquire a Hebrew slave, he shall serve six years; in the seventh year he shall go free, without payment. 3If he came single, he shall leave single; if he had a wife, his wife shall leave with him. 4If his master gave him a wife, and she has borne him children, the wife and her children shall belong to the master, and he shall leave alone. 5But if the slave declares, “I love my master, and my wife and children: I do not wish to go free,” 6his master shall take him before God. He shall be brought to the door or the doorpost, and his master shall pierce his ear with an awl; and he shall then remain his slave for life.

7When a man sells his daughter as a slave, she shall not be freed as male slaves are. 8If she proves to be displeasing to her master, who designated her for himself, he must let her be redeemed; he shall not have the right to sell her to outsiders, since he broke faith with her. 9And if he designated her for his son, he shall deal with her as is the practice with free maidens. 10If he marries another, he must not withhold from this one her food, her clothing, or her conjugal rights. 11If he fails her in these three ways, she shall go free, without payment.

12He who fatally strikes a man shall be put to death. 13If he did not do it by design, but it came about by an act of God, I will assign you a place to which he can flee.

14When a man schemes against another and kills him treacherously, you shall take him from My very altar to be put to death.

15He who strikes his father or his mother shall be put to death.

16He who kidnaps a man—whether he has sold him or is still holding him—shall be put to death.

17He who insults his father or his mother shall be put to death.

18When men quarrel and one strikes the other with stone or fist, and he does not die but has to take to his bed— 19if he then gets up and walks outdoors upon his staff, the assailant shall go unpunished, except that he must pay for his idleness and his cure.

20When a man strikes his slave, male or female, with a rod, and he dies there and then, he must be avenged. 21But if he survives a day or two, he is not to be avenged, since he is the other’s property.

22When men fight, and one of them pushes a pregnant woman and a miscarriage results, but no other damage ensues, the one responsible shall be fined according as the woman’s husband may exact from him, the payment to be based on reckoning. 23But if other damage ensues, the penalty shall be life for life, 24eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise.

26When a man strikes the eye of his slave, male or female, and destroys it, he shall let him go free on account of his eye. 27If he knocks out the tooth of his slave, male or female, he shall let him go free on account of his tooth.

28When an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox shall be stoned and its flesh shall not be eaten, but the owner of the ox is not to be punished. 29If, however, that ox has been in the habit of goring, and its owner, though warned, has failed to guard it, and it kills a man or a woman—the ox shall be stoned and its owner, too, shall be put to death. 30If ransom is laid upon him, he must pay whatever is laid upon him to redeem his life. 31So, too, if it gores a minor, male or female, [the owner] shall be dealt with according to the same rule. 32But if the ox gores a slave, male or female, he shall pay thirty shekels of silver to the master, and the ox shall be stoned.

33When a man opens a pit, or digs a pit and does not cover it, and an ox or an ass falls into it, 34the one responsible for the pit must make restitution; he shall pay the price to the owner, but shall keep the dead animal.

35When a man’s ox injures his neighbor’s ox and it dies, they shall sell the live ox and divide its price; they shall also divide the dead animal. 36If, however, it is known that the ox was in the habit of goring, and its owner has failed to guard it, he must restore ox for ox, but shall keep the dead animal.

37When a man steals an ox or a sheep, and slaughters it or sells it, he shall pay five oxen for the ox, and four sheep for the sheep.—

Chapter 22

1If the thief is seized while tunneling, and he is beaten to death, there is no bloodguilt in his case. 2If the sun has risen on him, there is bloodguilt in that case.—He must make restitution; if he lacks the means, he shall be sold for his theft. 3But if what he stole—whether ox or ass or sheep—is found alive in his possession, he shall pay double.

4When a man lets his livestock loose to graze in another’s land, and so allows a field or a vineyard to be grazed bare, he must make restitution for the impairment of that field or vineyard.

5When a fire is started and spreads to thorns, so that stacked, standing, or growing grain is consumed, he who started the fire must make restitution.

6When a man gives money or goods to another for safekeeping, and they are stolen from the man’s house—if the thief is caught, he shall pay double; 7if the thief is not caught, the owner of the house shall depose before God that he has not laid hands on the other’s property. 8In all charges of misappropriation—pertaining to an ox, an ass, a sheep, a garment, or any other loss, whereof one party alleges, “This is it”—the case of both parties shall come before God: he whom God declares guilty shall pay double to the other.

9When a man gives to another an ass, an ox, a sheep or any other animal to guard, and it dies or is injured or is carried off, with no witness about, 10an oath before the Lord shall decide between the two of them that the one has not laid hands on the property of the other; the owner must acquiesce, and no restitution shall be made. 11But if [the animal] was stolen from him, he shall make restitution to its owner. 12If it was torn by beasts, he shall bring it as evidence; he need not replace what has been torn by beasts.

13When a man borrows [an animal] from another and it dies or is injured, its owner not being with it, he must make restitution. 14If its owner was with it, no restitution need be made; but if it was hired, he is entitled to the hire.

15If a man seduces a virgin for whom the bride-price has not been paid, and lies with her, he must make her his wife by payment of a bride-price. 16If her father refuses to give her to him, he must still weigh out silver in accordance with the bride-price for virgins.

17You shall not tolerate a sorceress.

18Whoever lies with a beast shall be put to death.

19Whoever sacrifices to a god other than the Lord alone shall be proscribed.

20You shall not wrong a stranger or oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

21You shall not ill-treat any widow or orphan. 22If you do mistreat them, I will heed their outcry as soon as they cry out to Me, 23and My anger shall blaze forth and I will put you to the sword, and your own wives shall become widows and your children orphans.

24If you lend money to My people, to the poor among you, do not act toward them as a creditor; exact no interest from them. 25If you take your neighbor’s garment in pledge, you must return it to him before the sun sets; 26it is his only clothing, the sole covering for his skin. In what else shall he sleep? Therefore, if he cries out to Me, I will pay heed, for I am compassionate.

27You shall not revile God, nor put a curse upon a chieftain among your people.

28You shall not put off the skimming of the first yield of your vats. You shall give Me the first-born among your sons. 29You shall do the same with your cattle and your flocks: seven days it shall remain with its mother; on the eighth day you shall give it to Me.

30You shall be holy people to Me: you must not eat flesh torn by beasts in the field; you shall cast it to the dogs.

Chapter 23

1You must not carry false rumors; you shall not join hands with the guilty to act as a malicious witness: 2You shall neither side with the mighty to do wrong—you shall not give perverse testimony in a dispute so as to pervert it in favor of the mighty— 3nor shall you show deference to a poor man in his dispute.

4When you encounter your enemy’s ox or ass wandering, you must take it back to him.

5When you see the ass of your enemy lying under its burden and would refrain from raising it, you must nevertheless raise it with him.

6You shall not subvert the rights of your needy in their disputes. 7Keep far from a false charge; do not bring death on those who are innocent and in the right, for I will not acquit the wrongdoer. 8Do not take bribes, for bribes blind the clear-sighted and upset the pleas of those who are in the right.

9You shall not oppress a stranger, for you know the feelings of the stranger, having yourselves been strangers in the land of Egypt.

10Six years you shall sow your land and gather in its yield; 11but in the seventh you shall let it rest and lie fallow. Let the needy among your people eat of it, and what they leave let the wild beasts eat. You shall do the same with your vineyards and your olive groves.

12Six days you shall do your work, but on the seventh day you shall cease from labor, in order that your ox and your ass may rest, and that your bondman and the stranger may be refreshed.

13Be on guard concerning all that I have told you. Make no mention of the names of other gods; they shall not be heard on your lips.

14Three times a year you shall hold a festival for Me: 15You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread—eating unleavened bread for seven days as I have commanded you—at the set time in the month of Abib, for in it you went forth from Egypt; and none shall appear before Me empty-handed; 16and the Feast of the Harvest, of the first fruits of your work, of what you sow in the field; and the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you gather in the results of your work from the field. 17Three times a year all your males shall appear before the Sovereign, the Lord.

18You shall not offer the blood of My sacrifice with anything leavened; and the fat of My festal offering shall not be left lying until morning.

19The choice first fruits of your soil you shall bring to the house of the Lord your God.
You shall not boil a kid in its mother’s milk.

20I am sending an angel before you to guard you on the way and to bring you to the place that I have made ready. 21Pay heed to him and obey him. Do not defy him, for he will not pardon your offenses, since My Name is in him; 22but if you obey him and do all that I say, I will be an enemy to your enemies and a foe to your foes.

23When My angel goes before you and brings you to the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, and I annihilate them, 24you shall not bow down to their gods in worship or follow their practices, but shall tear them down and smash their pillars to bits. 25You shall serve the Lord your God, and He will bless your bread and your water. And I will remove sickness from your midst. 26No woman in your land shall miscarry or be barren. I will let you enjoy the full count of your days.

27I will send forth My terror before you, and I will throw into panic all the people among whom you come, and I will make all your enemies turn tail before you. 28I will send a plague ahead of you, and it shall drive out before you the Hivites, the Canaanites, and the Hittites. 29I will not drive them out before you in a single year, lest the land become desolate and the wild beasts multiply to your hurt. 30I will drive them out before you little by little, until you have increased and possess the land. 31I will set your borders from the Sea of Reeds to the Sea of Philistia, and from the wilderness to the Euphrates; for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hands, and you will drive them out before you. 32You shall make no covenant with them and their gods. 33They shall not remain in your land, lest they cause you to sin against Me; for you will serve their gods—and it will prove a snare to you.

Chapter 24

1Then He said to Moses, “Come up to the Lord, with Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy elders of Israel, and bow low from afar. 2Moses alone shall come near the Lord; but the others shall not come near, nor shall the people come up with him.”

3Moses went and repeated to the people all the commands of the Lord and all the rules; and all the people answered with one voice, saying, “All the things that the Lord has commanded we will do!” 4Moses then wrote down all the commands of the Lord.
Early in the morning, he set up an altar at the foot of the mountain, with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel.
5He designated some young men among the Israelites, and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed bulls as offerings of well-being to the Lord. 6Moses took one part of the blood and put it in basins, and the other part of the blood he dashed against the altar. 7Then he took the record of the covenant and read it aloud to the people. And they said, “All that the Lord has spoken we will faithfully do!” 8Moses took the blood and dashed it on the people and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that the Lord now makes with you concerning all these commands.”

9Then Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy elders of Israel ascended; 10and they saw the God of Israel: under His feet there was the likeness of a pavement of sapphire, like the very sky for purity. 11Yet He did not raise His hand against the leaders of the Israelites; they beheld God, and they ate and drank.

12The Lord said to Moses, “Come up to Me on the mountain and wait there, and I will give you the stone tablets with the teachings and commandments which I have inscribed to instruct them.” 13So Moses and his attendant Joshua arose, and Moses ascended the mountain of God. 14To the elders he had said, “Wait here for us until we return to you. You have Aaron and Hur with you; let anyone who has a legal matter approach them.”

15When Moses had ascended the mountain, the cloud covered the mountain. 16The Presence of the Lord abode on Mount Sinai, and the cloud hid it for six days. On the seventh day He called to Moses from the midst of the cloud. 17Now the Presence of the Lord appeared in the sight of the Israelites as a consuming fire on the top of the mountain. 18Moses went inside the cloud and ascended the mountain; and Moses remained on the mountain forty days and forty nights.

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